PubMed references over 20,000 published studies or reviews under the search terms cannabis, cannabinoid or marijuana, nearly half of which were published within the last five years. PubMed is a search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics and from peer reviewed journals.
By comparison, few pharmaceutical medicines are tested in multiple, large-scale clinical trials or have thousands of years of actual experience behind them.
Some of medicinal Cannabis proven benefits include:
Chronic pain is the condition for which cannabis is most widely used. It seems to be particularly effective in neuropathic pain for which opioids, NSAIDs and other pharmaceutical medicines are not effective. It also appears to reduce the required dose when used in conjunction with opioids. The following studies add support to the growing evidence:
Drugs. 2018 Nov;78(17):1791-1804. doi: 10.1007/s40265-018-0992-5.
Adjunctive CBD in patients with LGS or DS experiencing seizures uncontrolled by concomitant anti-epileptic treatment regimens is associated with a greater reduction in seizure frequency and a higher rate of AEs than placebo.
CNS Drugs. 2018 Oct;32(10):905-916. doi: 10.1007/s40263-018-0558-9.
Adjunctive CBD resulted in a greater reduction in seizure frequency and a higher rate of AEs than placebo in patients with LGS presenting seizures uncontrolled by concomitant approved antiepileptic drugs
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018 Jul;89(7):741-753. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2017-317168. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
Pharmaceutical-grade CBD as adjuvant treatment in paediatric-onset drug-resistant epilepsy may reduce seizure frequency. Existing RCT evidence is mostly in paediatric samples with rare and severe epilepsy syndromes; randomized controlled trieals examining other syndromes and cannabinoids are needed.
CNS Drugs. 2003;17(3):179-202.
This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the endocannabinoid system and indicates CNS disorders that may benefit from the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid treatment. Where applicable, reference is made to ongoing clinical trials of cannabinoids to alleviate symptoms of these disorders.
Support Care Cancer. 2003 Mar;11(3):137-43. Epub 2002 Aug 21.
The two proven indications for the use of the synthetic cannabinoid (dronabinol) are chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and AIDS-related anorexia. Other possible effects that may prove beneficial in the oncology population include analgesia, antitumor effect, mood elevation, muscle relaxation, and relief of insomnia. Two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been detected. CB1 receptors are expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system. CB2 receptors are found in certain nonneuronal tissues, particularly in the immune cells. Recent discovery of both the cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has opened a new era in research on the pharmaceutical applications of cannabinoids. The use of cannabinoids should be continued in the areas indicated, and further studies are needed to evaluate other potential uses in clinical oncology.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2019 Mar;28(3):285-296. doi: 10.1080/13543784.2019.1561859. Epub 2018 Dec 29.
Expert opinion: Sufficient evidence supports the use of Cannabis for palliative indications in oncology; however, patients should be carefully selected, guided and followed. Promising research suggests the potent antineoplastic activity, but more data must be accrued.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2019 Jan 31. doi: 10.1007/s00406-019-00984-4. [Epub ahead of print]
THC- and CBD-based medicines, given as adjunct to pharmaco- and psychotherapy, were associated with improvements of several symptoms of mental disorders, but not with remission. Side effects occurred, but severe adverse effects were mentioned in single cases only.
Recenti Prog Med. 2008 Dec;99(12):616-24.
Pain Manag. 2019 Jan 25. doi: 10.2217/pmt-2018-0051. [Epub ahead of print]
With the opioid epidemic reaching new heights in the USA, it has become critical to find suitable alternatives to opioids. Cannabis, an antinociceptive, is a strong contender to help patients reduce their opioid usage. A growing literature has been examining the complex effects cannabis has on pain relief and on opioid usage; whether it is a substitute for opioids or increases their use. This review explores the studies that compare cannabis-opioid interactions and presents some challenges of cannabis research and usage. The practical clinical pharmacology of cannabis as an analgesic, including the route of administration, safety and pharmacokinetics, are discussed to address the concerns, as well as possible solutions, of cannabis as a pain reliever.
Front Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 13;9:1259. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01259. eCollection 2018.
The evidence from current research supports the use of medical cannabis in the treatment of chronic pain in adults. Careful follow-up and monitoring of patients using cannabis/cannabinoids are mandatory.
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